The ‘Pedagogical Virtual Machine’ is a mechanism that translates student driven computer activity into learning outcomes. Like the Java virtual machine, it responds to messages but, rather than returning computational states, returns information relating to pedagogical achievement. Being a virtual entity, it can run on diverse platforms while offering a common interface and language to students and teachers. For example, it can interpret low sequences of sensor-actions to signal the attainment of a higher level pedagogical goal, such as constructing a working control system. By making such abstract information visible it augments reality, thereby providing a means to supplement student learning by making hitherto invisible computer processes, and pedagogical activities visible to the student (and teacher) advancing both educational technology and augmented reality.